Hosts Jamaica and title-holders Guyana will today meet in the final of the West Indies Cricket Board (WICB) Under-19 Championship at Manchester High School. Led by St Elizabeth Technical off-spin all-rounder Michael Frew, the Jamaicans will enter the contest as slight underdogs, having finished second to the Guyanese at the end of the seven-team preliminary round. Guyana, with five victories and one defeat, tallied 32 points to Jamaica’s 27.5, with the latter recording four wins and two losses. Trinidad and Tobago with three wins, two losses and a no-result, ended with 22.5 to round off the top three. Jamaica defeated Guyana by five wickets in both teams’ opening match of the tournament, with their South American mainland opponents posting 203 off 44.3 overs. Jamaica replied with 204 for five, with 4.4 overs to spare. “They (Guyana) will be difficult as they are an attacking team with, as usual, spin being their strength,” said Junior Deans, manager of Jamaica. “They have two left-arm spinners and two off-spinners. “However, we are optimistic about our chances, as we have been improving with each game and, if we play like we did in our last game against Barbados, where we fought hard and came off the field battered and bruised, we should do well.” Conditioned by Robert Samuels, Jamaica, in addition to Frew, will again be hoping for impressive performances from batsmen Abijhai Mansingh and Leonardo Friginette, as well as West Indies Under-19 fast bowling all-rounder Odean Smith and pacer Miguel Smith. Opener Mansingh and Friginette are coming off back-to-back half centuries, while Miguel, with seven wickets in their last two games, and Odean, the team’s leading wicket-taker, have been leading efforts with the ball. “When we bat, we just have to ensure that when we don’t just get boundary balls; we rotate the strike,” noted Deans. “Meanwhile, when we bowl, it’s about getting the ball in the right areas as much as possible, as well as showing support in the field,” he added. Guyana will look to West Indies Under-19 opener Shimron Hetmyer, who has highest scores of 135 not out and 98, captain Travis Persaud, and batting all-rounder Keemo Paul to lead their charge. Jamaica (from): Michael Frew (captain), Abijhai Mansingh (vice captain), Brad Barnes, Ryan Burnett, Shahid Crooks, Tyrone Daley, Ramone Francis, Leonardo Friginette, Gareth Henry, Miguel Smith, Odean Smith, Oshane Thomas, George Walker. Guyana (from): Travis Persaud (captain), Ronaldo Alimohamed (vice-captain), Akenie Adams, Balchan Baldeo, Grisean Grant, Shimron Hetmyer, Tevin Imlach, Kassem Khan, Parmesh Parsotam, Keemo Paul, Akshaya Persaud, Nathan Persaud, Parmanand Ramdhan, Sherfane Rutherford.
Today, seemingly more than ever before, climate change is a hot topic of almost any political and social debate. Is our modern lifestyle artificially interfering with the climate or is it a natural occurrence independent from human activity? The debate rages on. However, climate abnormalities are not something humanity is encountering for the first time. A historical episode that shows another dark environmental period of the Earth is the year 1816, known in history as the “Year Without a Summer”, “Poverty Year” or “Eighteen Hundred and Froze to Death.”According to USA Today, this extremely harsh year caused average global temperatures to decrease by 32-33 °F (0.4–0.7 °C). It brought snow in the middle of June followed by a freezing winter in July and August. This extraordinary weather change destroyed crops and the food supply became so scarce that countless people in North America and Europe suffered a great famine. In fact the Year Without a Summer is the sixth-deadliest disaster in Great Britain and Ireland by death toll (65,000).1816 summer temperature anomaly compared to average temperatures from 1971–2000. Photo by Giorgiogp2 CC BY-SA 3.0One of the claimed scientific reasons for this climate anomaly was the biggest volcanic eruption in history which took place in Indonesia on Mount Tambora in 1815. The aftermath of this event resulted in large quantities of dust and ash leaking into the atmosphere causing a serious change decrease in temperatures.The resulting famine spread deadly diseases far and wide so people were forced to move away from their homes.Experts and scientists claim that this black scenario could possibly happen again due to the fact that volcanoes still erupt and no one can be certain when the next big eruption is going to happen.The 1815 Mount Tambora eruption. The red areas are maps of the thickness of volcanic ashfall. CC BY-SA 3.0Considering this, any big eruption may prove to be far more fatal than any man-made ecological catastrophes.The tragic events of the year 1816 were also sealed in the pages of the book “The Year without Summer” by William B. Klingaman and co-author Nicholas P. Klingaman. The latter stated at the time that humanity is still unable to predict volcano eruptions and their destructive potential can only increase.The yellow skies typical of summer 1815 had a profound impact on the paintings of J.M.W. TurnerUSA Today reports that according to Klingman’s book, the eruption of Tambora is “by far the deadliest volcanic eruption in human history, with a death toll of at least 71,000 people, 12,000 of whom were killed directly by the eruption. And this doesn’t take into account the indirect deaths caused by the resulting famine.The volcano spewed out enough ash and pumice to cover a square area of 100 miles on each side with a depth of almost 12 feet. NASA also confirms that an eruption can cool a particular area and spread sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere where it then forms sulfate aerosols due to its reaction with water vapor.Turner’s classic sunset paintings were inspired by dust from volcanic eruptions including at Mount Tambora. This is the “Chichester Canal” (1828)The aerosols are highly durable and cool the surface of the Earth by reflecting sunlight.The heavy June snowstorms that year not only killed most of the crops but also froze many birds to death as well as other animals. Two months later, the freeze in August hit even harder, forcing people to survive in dreadful ways by eating pigeons, raccoons and other unsavory snacks.When The Arctic Warms, Extreme US Weather Is More FrequentThe Year Without Summer transformed many of Europe’s communities into impoverished crowds who, on top of that, had to fight a typhus epidemic.Dark storm clouds on a deserted dirt road. Many people had to flee their homes due to the ravages caused by the summerless year.After reading this unpleasant chapter in Earth’s natural history, one would naturally wonder when humanity can expect a return of this cruel climate episode. According to Klingaman, though eruptions like Tambora happen once every 1,000 years, smaller eruptions aren’t less of a problem.For example, the 1991 Pinatubo eruption cooled the Earth’s surface by nearly 34 °F (1 °C).1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptionTaking into account that today’s global temperatures are steadily increasing, it is understandable that a huge eruption could result in a network of disasters. USA Today adds that if it were to ever happen, it would be temporary and the warming would take up to several years to reappear again.Read another story from us: UK Heatwave Reveals Ancient Archaeological Sites Throughout BritainInterestingly, The Year without Summer had one positive effect. It inspired the British painter J.M.W Turner who painted breathtaking landscapes of the sunset after the Tambora eruption. The painting is named “The Lake, Petworth: Sunset, Fighting Bucks” and according to the Daily Mail it was painted many years after Tambora, presenting volcanic ash and gas in the sky under the warm colors of the sunset.