00:00 00:00 spaceplay / pause qunload | stop ffullscreenshift + ←→slower / faster ↑↓volume mmute ←→seek . seek to previous 12… 6 seek to 10%, 20% … 60% XColor SettingsAaAaAaAaTextBackgroundOpacity SettingsTextOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundSemi-TransparentOpaqueTransparentFont SettingsSize||TypeSerif MonospaceSerifSans Serif MonospaceSans SerifCasualCursiveSmallCapsResetSave SettingsNine San Diegans were honored Tuesday for their extraordinary courage in the face of violent crime.It was all part of District Attorney Summer Stephan’s annual Citizens of Courage Awards luncheon.KUSI was joined by District Attorney Summer Stephan and Maria Figueroa, one of the people honored at the luncheon. KUSI Newsroom Posted: April 10, 2018 District Attorney Summer Stephan’s annual ‘Citizens of Courage Awards’ April 10, 2018 Categories: Local San Diego News Tags: Citizens of Courage, District Attorney Summer Stephan FacebookTwitter KUSI Newsroom,
Car Industry Self-driving cars are on the way — but does the public understand their abilities and limits? Toyota Automakers and suppliers are working hard to develop autonomous cars and other self-driving technologies. But ensuring members of the public understand what those technologies can do — and also what they can’t do — is a different challenge. That’s why Audi, Daimler, General Motors, Toyota, Volkswagen, Waymo and several suppliers have founded a new partnership to provide that information.PAVE, or the Partners for Automated Vehicle Education coalition, was announced at a press conference at CES on Monday. The group intends to teach people about self-driving technology using three key strategies. First, PAVE will work to get both consumers and policymakers (i.e. legislators) behind the wheel with driver-assistance technology. Second, the group will hold educational workshops on the technologies for legislators. And finally, PAVE will offer “educational materials” that car dealers and service centers can offer to customers. Although the coalition also hopes to reduce the number of crashes and fatalities on American roads, PAVE does not necessarily plan to endorse only certain types of technologies. “It’s not about lobbying for one specific type of technology or one way to do things,” says Deborah Hersman, president and CEO of the National Safety Council, one of PAVE’s members. Instead, she says, the goal is “to help Americans better understand the potential and the promise of these technologies.” “We want to dispel the confusion about this technology that’s often misunderstood,” Hersman said. “We will provide clear and factual information so consumers understand this technology and what to expect.” Post a comment For automakers, many of whom are already PAVE members, the group’s education efforts should also ensure that car shoppers understand the benefits of driver-assist features in new models, as well as future self-driving cars. “No matter how good or ready the technology is, we need to ensure that society develops a level of trust with this automated technology,” said Kelly Kay, executive vice president of the Toyota Research Institute. Kyle Vogt, founder of Cruise Automation, agreed with the need for more public education. He said that his company likens today’s push for autonomy to the space race — the difference is, he said, that it’s being led by private companies who need to build trust with consumers. “People need to understand the technology to feel comfortable with it and ultimately to trust it with their lives,” he said. 9 Photos Share your voice 2020 BMW M340i review: A dash of M makes everything better CES 2019 Tags 2020 Hyundai Palisade review: Posh enough to make Genesis jealous 2020 Kia Telluride review: Kia’s new SUV has big style and bigger value Self-driving cars: Stay up to date on all the latest news in autonomy.CES 2019 schedule: It’s six days of jam-packed events. Here’s what to expect. Here’s the self-driving car you can take around Las Vegas during CES More From Roadshow 85 Photos All the cool new gadgets at CES 2019 0 Audi Toyota Self-driving cars
Earth to Mars in 100 days: The power of nuclear rockets Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Humanity has long since established a foothold in the Artic and Antarctic, but extensive colonization of these regions may soon become economically viable. If we can learn to build self-sufficient habitats in these extreme environments, similar technology could be used to live on the Moon or Mars. Citation: Inflatable Habitats for Polar and Space Colonists (2007, January 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-01-inflatable-habitats-polar-space-colonists.html Inflatable dome for cold, high-latitude regions on Earth. The main figure (a) shows a cross-section of the suggested biosphere, and the small figure (b) shows a top-down view. The important components are labeled: a thin, transparent double film on the sunlit side (1), a reflective cover on the shaded side (2), control louvers (3), the entrance (5), and an air pump/ventilator (6). The direction of the Sun is indicated by beams of light (4). The average temperature of the Antarctic coast in winter is about –20 °C. As if this weren’t enough, the region suffers from heavy snowfall, strong winds, and six-month nights. How can humanity possibly survive in such a hostile environment? So far we seem to have managed well; Antarctica has almost forty permanently staffed research stations (with several more scheduled to open by 2008). These installations are far from self-sufficient, however; the USA alone spent 125 million dollars in 1995 on maintenance and operations. All vital resources must be imported—construction materials, food, and especially fuel for generating electricity and heat. Modern technology and construction techniques may soon permit the long-term, self-sufficient colonization of such extreme environments.Why would anyone want to live there? Exceptional scientific research aside, the Arctic is though to be rich in mineral resources (oil in particular). The Antarctic is covered by an ice sheet over a mile thick, making any mineral resources it may have difficult to access. Its biological resources, however, have great potential. Many organisms adapted to extreme cold have evolved unusual biochemical processes, which can be leveraged into valuable industrial or medical techniques. Alexander Bolonkin and Richard Cathcart are firm believers in the value of this chilling territory. “Many people worldwide, especially in the Temperate Zones, muse on the possibility of humans someday inhabiting orbiting Space Settlements and Moon Bases, or a terraformed Mars” Bolonkin points out, “but few seem to contemplate an increased use of ~25% of Earth’s surface—the Polar Regions.”Indeed, the question of space exploration is intriguing. We would all like to know whether there is life on Mars, but robot probes can only perform the experiments they take along with them. Only humans are flexible enough to explore a new territory in detail and determine whether there are enough resources to sustain a long-term presence. Does modern technology really permit the design of lightweight, energy-efficient habitats suitable for other worlds? Greenhouse LivingThe Sun provides the Earth and Moon with about 1400 Watts per square meter, which is ample energy to warm a habitat even when the angle of the incident light and losses due to reflection are taken into account. On Mars, the sunshine is a little less than half as strong—which means that the equator of Mars receives about as much solar energy as the higher latitudes of Earth (Iceland, for example). The most efficient way to generate heat from sunlight is, of course, the well-known “greenhouse” effect. Given a transparent or translucent roof, any structure can hold onto the energy of sunlight long enough to transform it into heat. Glass works well for this, but glass is heavy and expensive to transport.Some good alternatives to glass are now available, however, and more options are on the way. Innovative manufacturing techniques have created many useful composite materials, including translucent, flexible membranes such as Saint-Gobain’s Sheerfill®. While these materials are certainly more expensive than glass, very little is required to construct a useful shelter.In a recent article submitted to arXiv.org , Bolonkin and Cathcart have designed an inflatable, translucent dome that can heat its interior to comfortable temperatures using only the weak sunlight of high latitudes. While many details remain to be worked out, the essential concept is sound. To improve the energy efficiency of the structure, they propose adding multiple insulating layers, aluminum-coated shutters, and a fine electrical network to sense damage to the structure. The dome would be supported entirely by the pressure of the air inside, which can be adjusted to compensate for the added buoyancy caused by high winds. The principle advantages of this design are the low weight and flexibility of the material. If only a few people at a time need shelter, an enclosure the size of a small house would weigh only about 65 kg, or as much as a person. This is light enough even for a space mission, and setting up would be as easy as turning on an air pump. For large colonies, enough membrane to enclose 200 hectares would weigh only 145 tons. The interior would be warm and sheltered, a safe environment for the construction of more traditional buildings and gardens.Bolonkin and Cathcart have attracted attention with their proposal, but a prototype has not yet been constructed.Notes: Source: 1996 report on the U.S. Antarctic Program by the National Science and Technology Council; www.nsf.gov/pubs/1996/nstc96rp/chiv.htm Source: Sam Johnston, “Recent Trends in Biological Prospecting”, UN University Institute for Advanced Studies; www.ias.unu.edu/sub_page.aspx?catID=35&ddlID=20 xxx.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0701098By Ben Mathiesen, Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com.
(PhysOrg.com) — As one of the newest research areas today, the field of magnonics is attracting researchers for many reasons, not the least being its possible role in the development of transistor-less logic circuits. Information presented at the first conference on magnonics last summer in Dresden has spurred a cluster of papers that focus on the recent progress in the field. In one of these studies, Alexander Khitun, Mingqiang Bao, and Kang L. Wang from the University of California at Los Angeles have shown that magnonic logic circuits could offer some significant advantages – in spite of some disadvantages – that may allow them to not only compete with but also outperform transistor-based CMOS logic circuits. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. While the amplitude-encoding approach has benefits including low power consumption due to the low energy of the spin wave signal, the researchers here think that the phase-encoding approach is more promising. This is because the phase-encoding approach enables different frequencies to be used as separate information channels, allowing parallel data processing in the same device. The capability of multi-channel data processing would provide a fundamental advantage over existing switch-based logic circuitry, and could lead to performance rates beyond the limits of today’s technology.“The greatest potential advantage of magnonic logic circuits is the ability to process information in parallel on different frequencies, which is not possible for CMOS-based logic,” Khitun told PhysOrg.com. Khitun, Bao, and Wang have previously fabricated a prototype magnonic device that operates in the GHz frequency range and at room temperature. However, in order for magnonic logic circuits to take advantage of their potential benefits, researchers will have to find solutions to several challenges. For instance, current prototypes will require increased energy efficiency and will need to be scaled down to the submicrometer range in order to compete with CMOS logic circuits. In comparison, there is still plenty of room to scale down the size of transistors, although power dissipation will likely make further scaling inefficient in the CMOS architecture. Another challenge for the magnonic phase-encoding approach in particular is the requirement for a bi-stable phase element to provide the output on two phases. In their analysis, the researchers note that one candidate is a device called the magnetic parametron, which was invented in the early days of magnetic computers more than 50 years ago. Interestingly, the parametron-based magnetic computers originally competed with transistor-based computers, which eventually proved to be the better option. Yet the magnetic parametron may now provide magnonic logic circuits the ability to live up to their potential.Other challenges for magnonic logic circuits include minimizing the inductive crosstalk between input and output ports, demonstrating some components of the circuits that have not yet been realized, and ensuring that the spin wave devices are compatible with conventional electron-based devices to enable efficient data exchange. Although the development of high-performance magnonic logic circuits will face challenges, Khitun, Bao, and Wang conclude that the advantages are significant enough to justify extensive research. Overall, the researchers predict that, even if the magnonic logic circuits don’t fully replace CMOS logic circuits, they may provide complementary components by offering low-power-consuming hardware for certain general and special task data processing. More information: Alexander Khitun, Mingqiang Bao, and Kang L. Wang. “Magnonic logic circuits.” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 (2010) 264005 (10pp). doi:10.1088/0022-3727/43/26/264005 Explore further This figure compares CMOS logic and magnonic logic in terms of throughput (the number of operations per area per time) as a function of the minimum feature size, which is the gate length for CMOS and the wavelength for a spin wave circuit. According to the projected estimates, spin logic may provide a throughput advantage of more than three orders of magnitude over CMOS due to the fact that the throughput of the spin circuit is inversely proportional to the wavelength. However, the throughput of demonstrated spin logic prototypes is currently far below current CMOS technology. Image credit: Alexander Khitun, et al. Spintronic transistor is developed The field of magnonics gets its name from spin waves and their associated quasi-particles called magnons, which have attracted scientific interest since the 1950s. Spin waves can generate collective spin excitations in magnetically ordered materials; by controlling the surrounding magnetic field, researchers can also control spin excitations and use them, for example, to carry and process information. Over the past few years, researchers have been investigating how to exploit spin wave phenomena to make logic circuits, which are the basis of data processing in electronic devices. Whereas CMOS logic circuits use electric current to store and transfer data, magnonic logic circuits use spin waves propagating in magnetic waveguides. By avoiding electric currents, magnonic logic circuits have the potential to enable more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality, including parallel data processing.On the other hand, spin waves are known to have properties that present disadvantages for data processing, which include having a group velocity that is more than 100 times slower than the speed of light, and an attenuation (reduction of signal strength) that is more than 1,000,000 times higher than for photons. However, as chip density has increased and the distances between components have become smaller, the slow velocity and high attenuation have become less problematic. Now, fast signal modulation has become more important, which spin waves can provide due to their short wavelength and long coherence length. As the researchers explain in their analysis, a magnonic logic circuit can encode a bit of information in two ways: through either the amplitude or the phase of the spin wave. In the first working spin wave-based logic device demonstrated in 2005, Mikhail Kostylev and coauthors used the amplitude-encoding approach. They split the spin wave into two paths, which would later interfere with each other either constructively or destructively. The interference creates two opposite amplitudes that represent the 0 and 1 logic states. In the second approach, a spin wave propagating through an inverter waveguide undergoes a half-wavelength phase change. The original phase ‘0’ and the inverted phase ‘π’ can then be used to represent the logic states 0 and 1, respectively. Citation: Researchers analyze the future of transistor-less magnonic logic circuits (2010, June 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-06-future-transistor-less-magnonic-logic-circuits.html
Kolkata: Bengal has emerged as the number one state in the country in terms of employment generation in the rural areas, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee said on Tuesday. The state has topped the list by generating 30.98 crore person-days till March 31 under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA).The Chief Minister tweeted: “I am very happy to share with all of you that Bengal has emerged No.1 in the country in rural employment generation. Under 100 days work scheme, as on 31 March 2018, Bengal has generated 30.98 crore person-days, which is the highest in the country.” Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsExplaining the expenditure that has been carried out for the project in the last fiscal, she maintained in the tweet: “Moreover, West Bengal reported the expenditure of Rs 8007.56 crore under this scheme in 2017-18, which is again the highest in the country. In terms of average person-days per household, West Bengal with 59 days in 2017-18, is the best performer among the major states.”As per the data of the state Panchayats and Rural Development department, the Bengal government has not only become successful in scoring the first rank in the country in terms of job creation but it has even crossed the target set by the Centre for 2017-18 Financial Year. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe Centre had set a target of 23 crore person-days for Bengal in the 2017-18 fiscal. The state government had become successful in creating 24 crore person-days by the end of December 2017 itself.In the last three months of 2017-18 fiscal, the state government has also become successful in creating another 6.98 crore person-days jobs and the figure total reached to 30.98 till March 31.It may also be mentioned that the state government had created 21 crore person-days in 2016-17 Financial Year while in the 2017-18 fiscal it has reached to 30.98 crore that marked an increase by around 43 percent. This comes at the time when the state Panchayats and Rural development department has set a target of creating 25 crore person-days in 2018-19.There was also a meeting in this connection between senior officials of the state Panchayats and Rural Development department, Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA), Siliguri Mahakuma Parishads and authorities from all districts. It would also ensure the livelihood of around 10 lakh families which would essentially mean that every Gram Panchayat will have to provide jobs to around 300 families.