Dec 14 2018A 2-year-old girl with an extreme form of hydrocephalus could someday lead a more normal life, thanks to a remarkable surgical intervention aided by state-of-the-art technologies used by a leading pediatric team supervised by two assistants professors of medicine at Université de Montréal.The child, who underwent two operations at CHU Sainte-Justine children’s hospital in Montreal, including a total cranial vault reconstruction, could not even sit upright because of the size and weight of her head. Her brain was being compressed by an excess of cerebrospinal fluid.Related StoriesHome-based support network helps stroke patients adjust after hospital dischargeTen-fold rise in tongue-tie surgery for newborns ‘without any real strong data’Study: Two-thirds of pneumonia patients receive more antibiotics than they probably needUsing virtual modelling and three-dimensional technology supported by a 3D printer, and after a 12-hour operation, surgeons were able to open the child’s abnormally large skull and reconstruct it to closer to normal dimensions. Prior to the procedure, her skull contained three litres of cerebrospinal fluid, while the normal amount is 150 millilitres. To achieve this amazing feat, the team made a detailed model of the girl’s skull, numbering the sections so they could later put them back in place, somewhat like a puzzle.”Our little patient suffered from an enlarged skull, otherwise known as extreme macrocrania,” said Dr. Alexander Weil, a pediatric neurosurgeon (MD, FRCSC, FAANS, FACS) at CHU Sainte-Justine. “If we hadn’t operated, she would have continued to be weighed down and immobilized by the size and weight of her head. This surgery gives us hope that she will now be able to develop and live more normally.” Added Dr. Daniel Borsuk, the hospital centre’s head of plastic surgery (MD, MBA, FRCSC, FACS): “The collaborative efforts of an experienced multidisciplinary team, which made it possible to successfully carry out this complex surgery.”The surgeons expressed their heartfelt thanks to all the health professionals who took part, as well as to the child’s family for placing their trust in the medical team. Source:https://www.umontreal.ca/
Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Jun 25 2019New research suggests that adding 30 minutes of daily outdoor activity reduces the progression of nearsightedness, called myopia, in children if the activity is continued. The study, conducted by researchers in Beijing, China, is published in the May 2019 issue of Translational Vision Science & Technology (TVST).Myopia is recognized as a major public health issue in East Asia, particularly in China, and is expected to affect half of the world’s population by 2050, according to a 2016 study out of the Brien Holden Vision Institute. Evidence shows that severe myopia increases the risk of developing glaucoma or a detached retina, diseases that can lead to vision loss. Myopia is caused by the lengthening of the eye, which impacts how light is bent when entering the eye and, as a result, affects vision.Related StoriesWhy Mattresses Could be a Health Threat to Sleeping ChildrenNew network for children and youth with special health care needs seeks to improve systems of careChaos in the house and asthma in children – the connectionScientists, led by Dr. Yin Guo of the Tongren Eye Care Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital at Capital Medical University, studied 382 children ages 6 and 7 at two Beijing-area schools for one year in a prospective interventional study. Students in the study group jogged for 30 minutes outdoors daily. The control group did not add this extra outdoor activity to their schedules.Examinations at the end of one year showed that students in the study group without myopia at the baseline had lower incidence of myopia compared with students in the control group. Students with myopia at baseline also showed slower progression of myopia compared with students in the control group. Annual follow-up exams following the conclusion of the one-year study showed that in year four, incidence of myopia was similar among the study and control groups. Our research provides further evidence and confirmation of an association between increased outdoor activity and decreased prevalence and incidence of myopia. This study also indicates that increasing outdoor activity may delay the progression of myopia for up to two years. We now need to translate these findings into action among children in China and around the world in order to help preserve their vision.”Dr. Yin Guo of the Tongren Eye Care Center The authors also indicate that their results could have implications for how China and other countries structure childhood outdoor activity levels to combat the increasing incidence of myopia and its progression.This latest study on myopia and activity in children adds to a growing body of scientific research on this topic. Additional studies were presented at the ARVO 2019 Annual Meeting in Vancouver, BC, pointing to increased contact with man-made and indoor environments as potential causes of myopia. Additional information on myopia research is available in a February 2019 special issue of IOVS, International Myopia Institute (IMI) White Papers. Source:Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)Journal reference:Guo, Y. et al. (2019) Outdoor Jogging and Myopia Progression in School Children From Rural Beijing: The Beijing Children Eye Study. Translational Vision Science & Technology (TVST). doi.org/10.1167/tvst.8.3.2
Protesters in Washington on February 27 urged lawmakers to reverse regulators and restore “net neutrality” rules that require all data to be treated equally Citation: US Senate votes to restore ‘net neutrality’ rules (2018, May 16) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-senate-votes-net-neutrality.html Explore further © 2018 AFP The 52-47 vote is likely to be symbolic, however, since the measure faces an uphill battle in the House of Representatives and would need enough lawmaker support to overturn a probable presidential veto.The vote marked the latest step in a contentious fight over rules governing online access over the past decade including court challenges and various moves by regulators.In December, the Federal Communications Commission voted 3-2 along party lines to reverse a 2015 order which established net neutrality and which itself had faced court challenges and intense partisan debate.In the Senate, three Republicans joined Democrats in the vote under the Congressional Review Act, which allows lawmakers to overturn a regulatory body.FCC chairman Ajit Pai, appointed by President Donald Trump, has argued that the 2015 rules were “heavy-handed” and failed to take into account the rapidly changing landscape for online services and were discouraging investment in advanced networks.Net neutrality backers have argued that clear rules are needed to prevent internet service providers from blocking or throttling services or websites for competitive reasons.Some activists fear internet service providers will seek to extract higher fees from services that are heavy data users, like Netflix or other streaming services, with these costs passed on to consumers.The battle has been largely along party lines, and has also been split with large tech firms supporting neutrality and telecom operators backing more flexible rules.Although the Senate vote may not succeed in restoring neutrality rules, backers said it would allow voters to know where their lawmakers stand.Democratic Senator Ed Markey said on Twitter the vote would “show the American people who sides with them, and who sides with the powerful special interests and corporate donors who are thriving under the @realDonaldTrump administration.”Ferras Vinh of the Center for Democracy & Technology, a digital rights group, welcomed the vote.”Without net neutrality protections, internet service providers will have an explicit license to block, slow, or levy tolls on content, which will limit choices for internet users and suffocate small businesses looking to enter the market,” Vinh said.”These protections are the guiding principles of the open internet, facilitating innovation and enabling the spread of new ideas.”But USTelecom, an industry group representing major broadband carriers, expressed disappointment.”This vote throws into reverse our shared goal of maintaining an open, thriving internet,” said association president Jonathan Spalter.”Consumers want permanent, comprehensive online protections, not half measures or election-year posturing from our representatives in Congress.” The US Senate voted Wednesday to restore so-called “net neutrality” rules aimed at requiring all online data to be treated equally, the latest step in a years-long battle on internet regulation. Top tech lobby joins legal battle to keep ‘net neutrality’ This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further New Zealand’s government plans a new tax targeting online giants like Google and Facebook that earn plenty of money in the country but pay little tax. This July 19, 2016, file photo shows the Google logo at the company’s headquarters in Mountain View, Calif. New Zealand’s government announced plans on Monday, Feb. 18, 2019, for a new tax targeting online giants like Google and Facebook that earn plenty of money in the country but pay little tax. Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said there’s a gap that needs to be closed. (AP Photo/Marcio Jose Sanchez, File) New Zealand halts Huawei from 5G upgrade over security fears © 2019 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said there’s a gap that needs to be closed.”Our current tax system is not fair in the way that it treats individual taxpayers and the way that it treats multinationals,” she said. “It’s not fair.”She said the proposed digital services tax would tax multinational online companies at about 2 or 3 percent on the revenue they generate in New Zealand, a rate that is in line with other countries considering similar taxes.Revenue Minister Stuart Nash said foreign online companies have a competitive advantage over local companies that do pay significant amounts of tax. He said the new tax that was announced on Monday could be implemented next year.Nash said New Zealand would continue working with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, to find an international solution to the problems of taxing big online companies, but that New Zealand was not going to wait around.”The OECD can move at a rather slow rate,” he said.New Zealand’s government estimates that online multinationals do about 2.7 billion New Zealand dollars ($1.9 billion) worth of business in the country each year, and that the new tax could generate up to 80 million New Zealand dollars ($55 million) annually.The most recent New Zealand company filings indicate Google paid NZ$392,000 in income taxes in the 2017 calendar year. The company, which declined to comment, claimed a NZ$1 million loss over the year after booking much of its revenue in other countries.The last publicly available figures from Facebook show the company paid NZ$43,000 in taxes in New Zealand in 2014.Facebook said in a statement that it complies with applicable tax laws in New Zealand and every other country in which it operates. It said it’s moving to a “local selling model” to provide more transparency to governments and policy makers.Amy Adams, the finance spokeswoman for the conservative opposition National Party, said the party agrees that multinationals should pay their fair share of taxes but that it supports the OECD work being ramped up. She said New Zealand will find it difficult to go out on its own without people missing out on what the global market has to offer. Citation: New Zealand plans new tax for giants like Google, Facebook (2019, February 19) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-02-zealand-tax-giants-google-facebook.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.