Ever since Thad Matta took over as coach for the Ohio State men’s basketball team, the program hasn’t been accustomed to losing. Over the past two seasons, the Buckeyes have compiled a 48-5 record with every loss coming against a ranked opponent. One of those five losses came Friday when OSU blew a double-digit lead and fell at Indiana. The loss didn’t sit well with the players and coaches, and conjured up some memories of the team’s Sweet 16 loss to Kentucky in last year’s NCAA tournament. Like the Kentucky loss, the game ended with a missed 3-pointer by William Buford that would have won the game. “We gave up that game against Indiana,” said sophomore forward Jared Sullinger. “Not taking anything away from Indiana, but there was a couple possessions when we watched film and realized that that’s not us.” Matta hopes his team uses the loss as a lesson for the rest of the season. “I think that nobody likes to lose more than we do,” Matta said. “It’s like I told our guys last year, I think we learned a great lesson in the Kentucky game, but the season was over. We have the ability to learn a lesson here at the end of December and continue to move forward.” Matta is known for being a players’ coach and normally doesn’t employ an in-your-face style of coaching. But according to the players, the Indiana loss particularly rubbed Matta the wrong way and he was a little more animated than normal. “(Matta) wasn’t very polite,” Sullinger said. “But that’s what we needed. We needed someone to put a fire under us. After that tough loss it was only right that he had to do that.” Matta described Monday’s practice as “challenging” and “tough,” and said he really harped on the focus of the team. “We’ve probably practiced this team harder than most teams we’ve had,” Matta said. “A lot of that has to do with the youthfulness and immaturity of the team and not quite understanding the level they must compete at. One of the messages yesterday was competing and a mindset carries over to the game. There was a couple moments where I had to refocus them a couple times, but for the most part I thought they did a pretty good job.” The team responded Tuesday, beating a battered Nebraska team, 71-40, at the Schottenstein Center. The Buckeyes committed 19 turnovers against the Cornhuskers, but Matta and his players felt they came out ready to play. “Last week at Indiana we was careless with the ball and we didn’t value every possession,” Buford said. “For the most part I think we did that today.” With the win against Nebraska, OSU raised its record to 14-2 overall and 2-1 in the Big Ten conference. At about the midpoint in the season, the team made it clear that while the team wasn’t going to dwell on the loss, they weren’t going to forget it. “It was a life lesson as far as the game period,” Sullinger said. “We gave up 17 layups against Indiana. They got whatever shot they wanted in the second half. As you can see, we turned up our defensive intensity in this game. We were just ready to play basketball.”
SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico — Hurricane Maria intensified into a dangerous Category 5 storm and pounded the little island of Dominica as it surged into the eastern Caribbean on Monday night, and forecasters warned it might become even stronger.The storm was following a path that could take it on Tuesday near many of the islands already wrecked by Hurricane Irma and then head toward a possible direct strike on Puerto Rico on Wednesday.There were no immediate reports from Dominica after the eye wall moved ashore, but earlier zinc roofs blew off homes as the outer edge of the storm began whipping the island.Dominica authorities had closed schools and government offices and urged people to move from dangerous areas to shelters.“We should treat the approaching hurricane very, very seriously,” Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit warned. “This much water in Dominica is dangerous.”In August 2015, Tropical Storm Erika unleashed flooding and landslides that killed 31 people and destroyed more than 370 homes on the small, mountainous island.Officials on nearby Guadeloupe said the French island would experience extremely heavy flooding and warned that many communities could be submerged overnight.In Martinique, authorities ordered people to remain indoors and said they should prepare for cuts to power and water. Schools and nonessential public services were closed.With Puerto Rico appearing destined for a hit, officials in the U.S. territory warned residents of wooden or otherwise flimsy homes to find safe shelter.
Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppProvidenciales, TCI, July 6, 2016 – Three weeks ago the Premier said he asked planning to go to Millennium Heights to see what is going on in the community which has unleashed a barrage of complaints to media and the public about construction, environmental and financial stresses they have been forced to endure for years because of short cuts and shoddy construction by Priton Development. The country’s leader explained to Magnetic Media via WhatsApp that it was nearly a month ago that he, and I quote him now, “I have instructed the Minister for Planning and the Planning Department via the minister to inspect the situation with respect to the sink holes in phase two and this was supposedly done.” He continued with, “I have again followed up with them yesterday and requested that whatever assessment is required that attention be paid and executed.” The statement also says, that the Minister would say something today, but Minister Amanda Missick has not said anything up to news production time. We asked the Premier about the mold, as he is the Minister of Health; Hon Dr Rufus Ewing said he had not heard of the mold problem but referred residents to the Environmental Health Department Director for evaluation.Magnetic Media has learned that the EHD has already condemned one house and that may lead to litigation. Meanwhile, also silent so far is Priton Development, the contractors given not one or two but three tracts of Crown Land to build what can only be described so far as subpar houses. The beleaguered homeowners in Millennium Heights have taken some comfort in the words of the Premier; who also said much of the owness has to be place on the builders as Planning Department aims to determine if there is something wrong with the construction method.This may be too little too late, as many of the buyers of the Priton homes are distrustful of the Planning Department, which they believe should have ensured at the onset, the house constructions were up to standard before issuing hundreds of move in certificates. Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Related Items:
Dr. P. James Schuck discussed the paper that he, Dr. Bruce E. Cohen, Dr. Daniel J. Gargas, Dr. Emory M. Chan, and their co-authors published in Nature Nanotechnology, starting with the main challenges the scientists encountered in: developing luminescent probes with the photostability, brightness and continuous emission necessary for single-molecule microscopydeveloping sub-10 nm lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) an order of magnitude brighter under single-particle imaging conditions than existing compositions, lanthanides being transition metals with properties distinct from other elements”The most common emitters used for single-molecule imaging – organic dyes and quantum dots – have significant limitations that have proven extremely challenging to overcome,” Schuck tells Phys.org. He explains that organic dyes are generally the smallest probes (typically ~1 nm in size), and will randomly turn on and off. This “blinking” is quite problematic for single-molecule imaging, he continues, and typically after emitting roughly 1 million photons will always photobleach – that is, turn off permanently. “This may sound like a lot of photons at first,” Schuck says, “but this means that the dyes stop emitting after only about 1 to 10 seconds under most imaging conditions. UCNPs never blink.”Moreover, Schuck continues, it turns out the same problems exist for fluorescent quantum dots, or Qdots, as well. However, while it is possible to make Qdots that will not blink or photobleach, this usually requires the addition of layers to the Qdot, which makes them too large for many imaging applications. (A quantum dot is a semiconductor nanocrystal small enough to exhibit quantum mechanical properties.) “Our new UCNPs are small, and do not blink or bleach.”Due to these properties, he notes, UCNPs have recently generated significant interest because they have the potential to be ideal luminescent labels and probes for optical imaging – but the major roadblock to realizing their potential had been the inability to design sub-10 nm UCNPs bright enough to be imaged at the single-UCNP level. © 2014 Phys.org Schuck mentions another advantage of upconverting nanoparticles – namely, they operate by absorbing two or more infrared photons and emitting higher-energy visible light. “Since nearly all other materials do not upconvert, when imaging the UCNPs in a sample, there is almost no other autofluorescent background originating from the sample. This results into good imaging contrast and large signal-to-background levels.” In addition, while organic dyes and Qdots can also absorb IR light and emit higher-energy light via a nonlinear two+ photon absorption process, the excitation powers needed to generate measurable two-photon fluorescence signals in dyes and small Qdots is many orders of magnitude higher than is needed for generating upconverted luminescence from UCNPs. “These high powers are generally bad for samples and a big concern in bioimaging communities” Schuck emphasizes, “where they can lead to damage and cell death.” Schuck notes that two other key aspects central to the discoveries mentioned in the paper – using advanced single-particle characterization, and theoretical modeling – were a consequence of the multidisciplinary collaborative environment at the Foundry. “This study required us to combine single-molecule photophysics, the ability to synthesize ultrasmall upconverting nanocrystals of almost any composition, and the advanced modeling and simulation of UCNP optical properties,” he says. “Accurately simulating and modeling the photophysical behavior of these materials is challenging due to the large number of energy levels in these materials that all interact in complex ways, and Emory Chan has developed a unique model that objectively accounts for all of the over 10,000 manifold-to-manifold transitions in the allowed energy range.”Previously, Schuck says that the conventional wisdom for designing bright UCNPs had been to use a relatively small concentration of emitter ions in the nanoparticles, since too many emitters will lead to lower brightness due to self-quenching effects once the UCNP emitter concentration exceeds ~1%. “This turns out to be true if you want to make particles that are bright under ensemble imaging conditions – that is, where a relatively low excitation power is used – since you have many particles signaling collectively,” Schuck explains. “However, this breaks down under single-molecule imaging conditions.” In their paper, the researchers have demonstrated that under the higher excitation powers used for imaging single particles, the relevant energy levels become more saturated and self-quenching is reduced. “Therefore,” Schuck continues, “you want to include in your UCNPs as high a concentration of emitter ions as possible.” This results in the nanoparticles being almost non-luminescent at low-excitation-power ensemble conditions due to significant self-quenching, but ultra-bright under single-molecule imaging conditions. UCNP size-dependent luminescence intensity and heterogeneity. a, Deviation of single UCNP luminescence intensity normalized to particle volume from ideal volumetric scaling (n¼300 total). The curve represents calculated intensity normalized to volume for UCNPs with a nonluminescent surface layer of 1.7 nm. Only intensities from single, unaggregated nanocrystals, as determined by Supplementary Fig. 5, are used. The top inset shows a diagram representing an ideal nanocrystal in which with all included emitters are luminescent (green circles). The bottom inset is a diagram representing a nanocrystal with emitters that are nonluminescent (maroon circles) in an outer surface layer. b, Fine spectra of the green emission bands collected from four single 8 nm UCNPs (curves 1–4) and their averaged spectra (curve Sigma). Credit: Courtesy Daniel Gargas, Emory Chan, Bruce Cohen, and P. James Schuck, The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Experimental Setup for single UCNP optical characterization. A 980nm laser is prefocused with a 500mm lens before entering the back aperture of a 0.95 NA 100x Objective (Zeiss), which adjusts the focal plane of the laser closer to that of the visible luminescence (dashed line). Emitted light is collected back through the same objective, filtered by two 700nm short-pass filters and two 532nm long-pass filters (Chroma) to remove residual laser light, and focused onto a single photon counting APD (MPD) or routed to a LN-cooled CCD spectrometer (Princeton Instruments) with 1200 grooves/mm grating. A Time-Correlated Single Photon Counter (Picoquant) is used for luminescence lifetime measurements. All experiments were performed in ambient conditions at 106/cm2 unless otherwise noted. Power-dependent data and single particle line-cuts shown in Fig 4 were collected with a 1.4 NA 100x oil immersion objective (Nikon). Credit: Courtesy Daniel Gargas, Emory Chan, Bruce Cohen, and P. James Schuck, The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Another important implication of this finding, Schuck adds, is that it should change how people will screen for the best single-molecule luminescent probes in the future. “Until now,” he notes, “people would first look to see which probes were bright using ensemble-level conditions, then would investigate only that subset as possible single-molecule probes. Our new probes would, of course, have failed that screening test!” Schuck again emphasizes that “a key reason this discovery happened is that we have experts in all key areas in the same building, and we were able to quickly iterate through the theory-synthesis-characterization cycle.”Regarding future research directions, notes Schuck, the scientists are pursuing a few different avenues. “We’d certainly like to now use these newly-designed UCNPs for bioimaging….so far, we’ve only investigated the fundamental photophysical properties of these particles when they’re isolated on glass. We believe one exciting and important application will be their use in brain imaging – particularly for deep-tissue in vivo optical imaging of neurons and brain function. In closing, Schuck mentions other areas of research that might benefit from their study. “I think a primary application is in single-particle tracking within cells. For example,” he illustrates, “labeling specific proteins with individual UCNPs and tracking them to understand their cellular kinetics.” Along different lines, Schuck adds, it turns out that UCNPs are also excellent probes of very local electromagnetic fields. “This is because lanthanides have a rather unique set of photophysical properties such as relatively prevalent magnetic dipole emission, allowing us to probe optical magnetic fields, and very long lifetimes such that transitions are not strongly allowed, which allows us to more-easily probe cavity quantum optical effects such as the Purcell enhancement of emission. In fact, Schuck concludes, an experiment that uses UCNPs to report on the near-field strengths and field distributions surrounding nanoplasmonic devices is just underway.” When imaging at the single-molecule level, small irregularities known as heterogeneities become apparent – features that are lost in higher-scale, so-called ensemble imaging. At the same time, it has until recently been challenging to develop luminescent probes with the photostability, brightness and continuous emission necessary for single-molecule microscopy. Now, however, scientists in the Molecular Foundry at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA have developed upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) under 10 nm in diameter whose brightness under single-particle imaging exceeds that of existing materials by over an order of magnitude. The researchers state that their findings make a range of applications possible, including cellular and in vivo imaging, as well as reporting on local electromagnetic near-field properties of complex nanostructures. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Bright future for protein nanoprobes Citation: Bright lights, small crystals: Scientists use nanoparticles to capture images of single molecules (2014, April 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-04-bright-small-crystals-scientists-nanoparticles.html More information: Engineering bright sub-10-nm upconverting nanocrystals for single-molecule imaging, Nature Nanotechnology 9, 300–305 (2014), doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.29 Journal information: Nature Nanotechnology “This brings me to what is probably the most important takeaway from our work, which is the discovery and demonstration of new rules for designing ultrabright, ultrasmall UCNP single-molecule probes,” Schuck says. In addition, he stresses that these new rules contrast directly with conventional methods for creating bright UCNPs. “As we showed in our paper, we synthesized and imaged UCNPs as small as a single fluorescent protein! For many bioimaging applications, very small – certainly smaller than 10nm – luminescent probes are required because you really need the label or probe to perturb the system they are probing as little as possible.” Luminescence of UCNPs. a, Schematic of energy transfer upconversion with Yb3+ as sensitizer and Er3+ as emitter. b, Minimum peak excitation intensities of NIR light needed for multiphoton single-molecule imaging of various classes of luminescent probes. The peak excitation intensity ranges shown are required to detect signals of 100 c.p.s. Credit: Courtesy Daniel Gargas, Emory Chan, Bruce Cohen, and P. James Schuck, The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Belgian cable operator Telenet is launching Yelo TV, a new version of its TV Everywhere service.The service, which aims to give customers the ability to watch programmes, live or recorded, on any screen will be available from March 5 on tablets, smartphones and computers, and from April 5 on TV.For the TV launch, viewers will require to download a new interactive menu. Customers with older set-tops will be able to exchange them for a one-off fee of €39.The mobile versions available from April will be for the iOS or Android platforms, with an app for Windows 8 tablets to follow in May.Yelo TV aims to offer the same viewing experience across multiple devices, and builds on Telenet’s Yelo multiscreen application, launched in 2010.The Yelo TV will be free of charge at launch. Telenet plans to make the TV menu and live TV free on an ongoing basis, will charge for watching recordings on smartphones, tablets and computers, along with other new paid for features to be added later.Inge Smidts, senior vice-president, residential marketing, said: “Thanks to the Yelo application launched in 2010, the viewer has discovered the advantages of watching live TV on other screens. With Yelo TV, Telenet is now the first to respond to the increasingly vocal demand from customers to be able to view their recordings on, for example, tablet or computer. Thus, you really watch what you want, when you want, and on any type of screen.”
If you were born between 1980 and the mid-2000s, Wall Street probably hates you. It’s not because you’re a narcissist, entitled, or lack entrepreneurial spirit. And it has little to do with the fact that you haven’t opened a trading account to buy stocks. It isn’t even because you’re shunning high finance to pursue a “more meaningful” career. No, Wall Street dislikes you because you’re difficult to cash in on. If you haven’t guessed already, I’m talking about millennials—a cohort of Americans who are constantly being told how awful they are. Wall Street’s gripe with millennials is a big one. They represent one-third of the US population, making them the largest demographic in America. Yes, bigger than the baby boomers. Unlike prior generations, millennials are in no rush to grow up. Instead of making down payments on first homes, millennials are crashing in their parents’ basements. Rather than shopping at Walmart, they’re buying their groceries at farmers’ markets. This generation doesn’t buy cars. They use ride-sharing programs like Uber. The unique lifestyles and consumer preferences of millennials are frustrating Corporate America. McDonald’s is rewriting its menu and rethinking its marketing strategy to reach millennials, who would rather down a kale smoothie than stuff their faces with Big Macs. Say what you will about millennials, there’s no denying that they’re the future of America. The question that remains is: How do investors play a demographic that isn’t getting married, having children, or buying homes? The answer is technology. For better or worse, millennials are obsessed with their gadgets. Twenty-somethings can’t even take a bite of their sandwich without first snapping a picture of it. And those photographs of ramen bowls and steam buns aren’t being stored away as personal mementos. Millennials are broadcasting them on the Internet for everyone to see. But the key to “reaching” millennials isn’t through technology in a general sense. Social media is the ticket. According to Entrepreneur.com, 71% of millennials log in to social media daily, and the average user spends more than five hours on social media. This connection with—some would argue, addiction to—social media defines millennials. Unfortunately, that doesn’t make investing in this generation any easier. There are countless social media services out there. New ones pop up every day. Choosing the right company to invest in can be difficult, especially for investors who are still wary of Internet stocks following the tech bubble crash of the early 2000s. It doesn’t help that some social media companies are still stuck in start-up mode and have yet to generate a profit. Social media companies are tough to understand and even harder to value. Nonetheless, the industry has a bright future. Luckily, The Casey Report has done its research, and discovered a low-risk way to play one generation’s obsession. The best thing about this investment is that the money is just pouring in right now. Sign up for The Casey Report today to learn about this pick and other big-picture ideas.
I made 17 trades during my first six weeks as a trader. Every single one was a winner.Going 17 for 17 was a remarkable feat for a rookie trader—especially since I wasn’t using any sort of fundamental or technical analysis. I was just going with my gut.But I was careful not to put more than $1,000 or $2,000 into any single trade. And I still managed to turn my $5,000 brokerage account into $50,000 in just six weeks…And then I decided it was time to get serious. No more tiny trades. I was too good for the small stuff. For whatever reason, I had figured out a way to beat the market.Heck, I had just rattled off 17 straight triple-digit winners. So I decided to take the $50,000 in my account, add to it my $25,000 in savings, and put it into a handful of options trades.You can probably guess what happened next.The stock market has a habit of humbling folks who think they’ve figured it out. For me, the humbling started right away.At first, the positions started slightly moving against me. It was nothing to be concerned about. One good day would put everything back in the profit column.But then, one by one, each position blew up on me. It was too painful to watch. I kept the television off and avoided reading the newspaper for fear I’d see something bad about the stock market and my positions. — Geologist Uncovers Incredible Resource Opportunity in IdahoDave Forest, a professionally trained geologist, has visited over 23 countries, but one of his most stunning finds is here in America. Dave discovered a rare fuel source buried in the ground in Idaho that he calls “Brandt Oil,” and it could change the energy landscape in the U.S. for good… We’ve asked Dave to give you complete access to everything he’s uncovered about “Brandt Oil.” Just click here for details. Recommended Link When I finally got up enough courage to call the branch manager and check on the status of my account, I learned all the gains I had built up over the previous six weeks were gone.“Just sell everything,” I said.That was an expensive lesson to learn. But it’s one every options trader learns at some point. I was just fortunate it happened to me early in my career.You see, that experience changed how I looked at trading. Instead of using options as vehicles for speculation—a way to juice my returns and get more bang for my buck—I started using them the way they were intended to be used: as a way to reduce risk.Today, I still do my fair share of speculating. But I’m not focused on how much money I can make. I’m focused on how little I can lose.That’s a huge difference. It has allowed me to trade options successfully for nearly three decades. And it allowed me to retire at 42.Best regards and good trading,Jeff Clark Editor, Market MinuteP.S. Like any honest trader will admit, this is far from the only horror story that has occurred over my career. But my favorite story, which started out just as scary… ended quite differently.You see, I’d learned from my previous mistakes… and turned what was almost a devastating loss into one of the biggest wins of my career. Click here to hear all about it.Reader MailbagToday, another reader writes in about Doug Casey’s recent piece on the Alex Jones ban…Thanks Doug, for your comments about Facebook, Alex Jones and free speech. Makes me see this in a different light. —EdAs always, if you have any questions or suggestions for the Dispatch, send them to us right here.In Case You Missed It…Recently, President Trump signed an executive order that mandates the Interior Department begin mapping the country to locate America’s “Brandt Oil” reserves.“Brandt Oil” is a new, clean super fuel that’s so powerful, less than two gallons’ worth contains enough raw energy to power your house for nine years. So it’s no surprise “Brandt Oil” applications are going mainstream.Get the full story right here… Justin’s note: Regular readers know I read master trader Jeff Clark’s Market Minute every morning. It’s a quick way to see everything I need to know about the coming day’s market action… and get expert trading advice—for free.Today, I’m sharing one of my favorite essays from him. If you’re interested in becoming a better trader, the following essay is required reading. In it, Jeff shares one of the most important lessons of his career…By Jeff Clark, editor, Market MinuteI was only 19 years old when I made my first options trade.I had a gut feeling the market was going to go higher… so I bought four S&P 100 call options at $1.50—a total investment of $600. A few hours later, the options were trading at $4.50. I sold and took the $1,200 profit—a 200% gain. And I was hooked on options forever.My next trade was in IBM. I bought 10 calls for $1. This time, it took a couple days to double my money. Next, I bought Digital Equipment put options… which nearly tripled in just a few days. This Illinois Farmer Made $2.5 Million (so can you)He didn’t touch stocks or bonds. The profit wasn’t from his farm, either. Rather, it’s from an idea Ronald Reagan had wanted all Americans to have. Recommended Link —
Source:https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-018-5995-3 Related StoriesRecreational cannabis legalization could impact alcohol industry, research showsAlcohol reduction associated with improved viral suppression in women living with HIVExcess grey matter in the brain can predict escalating drinking behavior in teensThe study found that teetotallers among the 16 to 24 year olds has risen from 18 percent in 2005 to 29 percent in 2015 and abstinence from alcohol is gradually becoming “mainstream”.The team of researchers from the University College London conducted a survey and noted that nearly 50 percent of the participants had not touched alcohol in the past week.This number was around 35 percent in 2005, they noted. The information for this study was derived from the annual Health Survey for England where 10,000 young adults were included.The team found that “lifetime abstainers” from alcohol rose from 9 percent in 2005 to 17 percent in 2015. Binge drinking too declined from 27 percent to 18 percent over these 10 years. Similarly harmful drinking declined from 43 percent in 2005 to 28 percent in 2015.The study concluded that young adults today were drinking less than their parents did but alcohol consumption rates failed to decline among smokers, those with mental health conditions and also among certain ethnic minorities.Dr Linda Ng Fat, who led this study said in a statement, “Increases in non-drinking among young people were found across a broad range of groups, including those living in northern or southern regions of England, among the white population, those in full-time education, in employment and across all social classes and healthier groups.The increase in young people who choose not to drink alcohol suggests that this behaviour maybe becoming more acceptable, whereas risky behaviours such as binge drinking may be becoming less normalised.”According to Dr. Fat these results are also consistent with other findings such as a decline in smoking and recreational drugs abuse along with other risky behaviors. Image Credit: milias1987 / Shutterstock By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MDOct 11 2018A new study has found that more young adults in England, aged between 16 and 24 are turning away from alcohol consumption and this has made the current generation one of the most sober in recent times. The study was published in the recent issue of the journal BMC Public Health.
Reviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Feb 20 2019Developed by researchers at the University of Turku in Finland, an immunotherapeutic antibody therapy re-educates macrophages to activate passivated cytotoxic T cells to kill cancer. The antibody therapy prevented the growth of tumors in several mouse models. The development of the therapy has now progressed to patient testing in a phase I/II clinical trial.One reason behind many unsuccessful cancer treatments is the cancers’ ability to hijack the immune system to support its own growth. This is assisted by the so-called tumor-associated macrophages that can be educated by cancer cells to dampen anti-tumor immune responses. Macrophages are phagocytes that form the first line of defense towards invading pathogens and they have a crucial role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Macrophages have a large repertoire of functions in immune activation and resolving inflammation.In collaboration with Academician of Science and Professor of Immunology Sirpa Jalkanen, Academy Research Fellow Maija Hollmén’s research group investigated the possibility to utilize tumor-associated macrophages to increase the immunological detection and killing of cancer cells. Professor Jalkanen has studied the function of Clever-1 for a long time. Previously, her group has observed that Clever-1 controls leukocyte trafficking between tissues.Published in the journal Clinical Cancer Research, the study found that blocking Clever-1 function on macrophages activated the immune system and was highly effective in inhibiting cancer progression.By inhibiting Clever-1 functions, tumor-associated macrophages that normally impair adaptive immune cell activation, such as cancer cell killing by cytotoxic T cells, were managed to be re-educated so that they had increased ability to present antigen and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to increased activation of killer T cells.Related StoriesTET proteins help regulate gene activity vital for normal antibody productionScripps CHAVD wins $129 million NIH grant to advance new HIV vaccine approachSynthetic antibody rapidly prevents Zika infection in mice and non-human primates- These results are highly promising and present a completely new way to activate anti-cancer immunity, says Doctoral Candidate Miro Viitala, who is the main author of the article.- Macrophages are an ideal drug development target as they express several molecules that can be activated or impaired to transfer the macrophages into cells that destroy cancer. In itself, this would increase beneficial inflammation in the tumor microenvironment, which would improve the efficiency of immune checkpoint inhibitors in those patients whose response is weak due to lack of tumor-specific T cell activation, continues Viitala.The antibody therapy targeting Clever-1 worked in the studied tumor mouse models as efficiently as the PD-1 antibody therapy that is in clinical use. The PD-1 antibody maintains the functionality of the killer T cells. It is notable that the Clever-1 antibody therapy targeting macrophages also increased the activity of the killer T cells efficiently.In certain mouse models of cancer, a combination of anti-Clever-1 and anti-PD-1 therapies prevented tumor growth and formation of metastases more effectively than either treatment alone.- Every cancer is different. Therefore, it is important to explore the types of cancer where Clever-1 antibody therapy most effectively works on and to find biomarkers that can be used to identify beforehand the patients that will benefit the most from this kind of therapy, concludes Viitala.Source: https://www.utu.fi/en/news/press-release/antibody-therapy-training-phagocytes-to-destroy-tumours-now-tested-on-patients
SAM, a self-learning assistance system, helps machine operators resolve errors in production machines. Credit: Fraunhofer IVV To take a concrete example: On a processing machine, chocolate bars are wrapped in paper. A sensor detects a deviation in the production process and the machine stops. Even with state-of-the-art systems, a brief interruption occurs on average every five minutes. An experienced machine operator knows where the cause of the error lies. He or she sees that the paper is bending and concludes that, in this case, the speed of the machine needs to be regulated. However, this knowledge is person-specific – a colleague with less experience would need more time to find the solution.To make this experience-based knowledge available to all operators at all times, scientists at Fraunhofer IVV in Dresden are developing SAM, a self-learning assistance system for machine operators. The system observes machine states and operator actions and saves successful solution strategies. Using a tablet computer, for example, the machine operator inputs his/her solution and then links it to the current fault situation recorded by SAM. If a given fault has occurred several times, SAM recognizes it and can give the operator tips on the cause and on how to solve the problem. In this way, the machine is quickly repaired and running again.To enable SAM to learn fault situations, the scientists at Fraunhofer IVV are using machine learning algorithms. Equipped with intelligent feature extraction, SAM is able to learn at a similar speed as humans and can recognize patterns after only a few repetitions. “Thanks to our knowledge of packaging machine processes, we’re able to make SAM very fast,” explains Andre Schult, Group Manager for Digitalization and Process Efficiency at Fraunhofer IVV.Working with SAM is a people-centered experienceWhen designing SAM, Fraunhofer IVV in Dresden put people at the center of their considerations. “A human being is a wonderful tool. With their hands and eyes, they are more flexible and better than many robots or cameras,” says Andre Schult. However, processes and systems are growing in complexity all the time. With SAM, Schult also wants to enable operators in the future to recognize errors themselves and suggest their own solutions. People should know that, despite all the state-of-the-art technology, humans play an indispensable role in production. This increases their sense of value in their work and their motivation.Together with partners from industry and science, Fraunhofer IVV plans to further develop the self-learning operator assistance system over the next five years and add new functionalities through a range of new modules. In this way, it will be possible to adapt SAM to specific customer requirements. Possible additional features include things like the use of image processing, external sensors, and speech and gesture recognition. Looking forward, manufacturers will be able to use SAM both for the operation and for the maintenance, setup, assembly and development of machines. Explore further Citation: Self-learning assistance system for efficient processes (2018, June 1) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-self-learning-efficient.html To prevent long downtimes and high quantities of scrap, manufacturers must design production processes to be stable and efficient. Particularly successful outcomes are achieved when the experience of the people who operate the machines is taken into account. The Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV in Dresden is developing a self-learning assistance system that helps machine operators resolve errors and build up their experience and process knowledge. Provided by Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Better quality control with digital assistance systems This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.